Abbreviations

Abbreviations

Table of Contents

General Directions

Abbreviations

General Directions

The individual excipients are arranged alphabetically. The most customary spelling in scientific literature was chosen. An arrow (▸) means, that the following word is discussed in another section. Registered trademarks (®, TM) are omitted in the encyclopedia for the sake of clarity. This does not mean in any case that the appropriate word is available for common use. Temperature is given in degree Celcius (25° = 25℃) as far as not otherwise denoted.

Abbreviations

For reasons of expediency several abbreviations are listed in the text and explained there.

°

℃, Centigrade degrees, Celcius degrees

a

anno = year

Å

Angström = 10–7 mm

AAS

atom absorption spectrometry

ACS

American Chemical Society

ADI

acceptable daily intake

ad lib

ad libitum

aq.

aqua = water

A.P.

American patent

APHA

American Public Health Association (color numbers)

at

atmosphere (tecn.), unit of pressure, 1 at = 1 kp/cm2

atm

atmosphere (physical.), unit of pressure, 1 atm = 1.033 kp/cm2

AcV

acetyl value

AV

acid value

bar

unit of pressure, 1 bar = 105 Pa

BET

method for measuring surface area according to Brunauer, Emmett and Teller

BGA

previous name of the German drug regulatory agency

BIS

Bibra Information Services (toxicity profiles)

bp

boiling point

BP

British Pharmacopeia

BPC

British Pharmaceutical Codex

cal

1 calorie = 4.1868 J

CAS

Chemical Abstracts Service Number

CG

cosmetic grade

C.I.

Colour Index (EU)

CIR

Cosmetic Ingredient Review

cKs

in the US occasionally taken for cSt

Cod Franc

Franc Codex Français

comp.

composition

cP

centiPoise (mPa∙s)

CPMP

Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products of the EMEA

cSt

centiStoke

CFTA

Cosmetic, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association

d

density

relative density

d

dies = day

d

dose

DAB

German Pharmacopoeia (Deutsches Arzneibuch)

DAC

German Drug Codex (Deutscher Arzneimittel Codex)

DAS

published examined German patent application (Deutsche Auslegeschrift)

DBP

German federal patent (Deutsches Bundespatent)

DGF

German society for fat science (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Fettwissenschaft)

dil.

dilutus = diluted

DIN

German institute for standardization (Deutsches Institut für Normung)

DL

dosis letalis

DLM

dosis letalis minima

DRP

former German patent (Deutsches Reichspatent)

E.

Engler grades, viscosimetry

EC

European Community

EINECS

European Inventory of Existing Chemical Substances

ELINCS

European List of Notified Chemical Substances

EMEA

European Medicines Evaluation Agency

E.P.

English patent

Erg B

German Pharmacopoeia, Supplement (Ergänzungsband zum Deutschen Arzneibuch)

et al.

et alii = and others

EV

ester value

°F

Fahrenheit degrees, see survey table Temperature Transformation

F Bras

Bras Farmacopéia das Estados Unidas da Brasil

FCC

Food Chemicals Codex

FDA

US Food and Drug Administration

fp

freezing point

FU

Farmacopeia Ufficiale della Republica Italiana

G

giga = 109

GC

gas chromatography

GDR

the former German Democratic Republic

Ger. Offen. (DE)

published unexamined German patent (DE) documentation; document laid open

GLC

gas liquid chromatography

GLP

good laboratory practice

GPC

gel permeation chromatography

h

hora = hour

HLB

hydrophilic-lipophilic balance

HPCE

high performance capillary electrophoresis

HPLC

high performance liquid chromatography

i.c.

intracutaneous

ICH

International Conference on Harmonization

i.m.

intramuscular

INCI

International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients

int.

internus = internal

i.p.

intraperitoneal

IP

The Pharmacopoeia of India

IR

infra-red

IRS

infra-red spectroscopy

I.U.

international unit

i.v.

intravenous

IV

iodine value

J

Joule, unit of energy, 1 J = m2 kg/s2 (Nm)

JCID

Japanese Cosmetic Ingredients Dictionary

JP

The Pharmacopoeia of Japan

JPE

Japanese Pharmacopoeia Excipients

JSCI

Japanese Standard of Cosmetic Ingredients

°K

Kelvin degrees, SI-unit of temperature, 273.15°K = 0℃

kcal

kilocalorie(s), unit of energy, 1 kcal = 4.1868 kJ

kJ

kiloJoule(s), unit of energy, 1 kJ = 0.239 kcal

l

liter(s), unit of volume 1 l = 1 dm3

loc. cit.

loco citato

LC

liquid chromatography

LD50

lethal dose for 50 %

LD lo

lowest published lethal dose in literature

LOD

loss on drying

M

molar, concentration unit e.g. 3M

MAC

Maximum Admissible Concentration (drinking water)

MAK

Maximale Arbeitsplatz-Konzentration

max.

maximum

mCi

milliCurie

µCi

microCurie

MEL

Maximum Exposure Limits

meq

milliequivalents/g

mg%

milligramm percent = mg of dissociated material in 100 g total mass (solvent)

min

minute(s)

min.

minimal, minimum

MITI

Ministry of International Trade and Industry (Japan)

MLD

minimum lethal dose

mmHg

millimeter(s) of mercury, unit of pressure, 1 mmHg = 133.322387415 Pa

Mn

number molecular weight, determined for polymers by osmometry

mol

mole(s), mass of 6.023∙1023 moles (g)

molwt

molecular weight

mp

melting point

mp*

melting point according to pharmacopoeial 'open capillary method'

mPa∙s

milliPascal seconds, unit of viscosity, 1 mPa∙s = 1 cP

MS

mass spectroscopy

mth

month

Mw

weight molecular weight, determined for polymers by light scattering or ultracentrifugation

n.

normal

n20

number of members of a statistical collective

nD

refractive index

NF

The US National Formulary

nm

nanomolar

nm

nanometer(s), unit of length, 1 nm = 10-9 m

nmol

nanomole(s) = 10-9 mol

NND

New and Nonofficial Drugs

NNR

New and Nonofficial Remedies

NRF

new prescription formulary (Neues Rezept-Formularium)

NTP

US National Toxicological Program

NV

neutralization value

ÖAB

Austrian Pharmacopoeia (Österreichisches Arzneibuch)

OECD

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

OEL

Occupational Exposure Limits

OHV

hydroxyl value

OS

see Ger. Offen.

OVIs

organic volatile impurities

O/W

oil-in-water (emulsion)

P

Poise, 1 P = 0.1 Pa∙s, dynamical viscosity

P.

granted patent, does not indicate that the patent is still valid at present

Pa

Pascal, unit of pressure, 1 Pa = m-1 kg s-2 (Nm-2)

PC

paper chromatography

PDA

Permitted Daily Exposure (Residual Solvents)

pH

the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration

Ph Belg

Pharmacopée Belge

Ph Dan

Pharmacopoea Danica

Ph F

Pharmacopoea Fennica

Ph Franc

Pharmacopoée Française

Ph Helv

Pharmacopoea Helvetica

Ph Ned

Pharmacopoea Nederlandica

Ph Nord

Pharmacopoea Nordica

Ph Norv

Pharmacopoea Norvegica

Ph Svec

Pharmacopoea Svecica

p.i.

post injectionem, infusionem = after injection, infusion

pM

picomolar

p.o.

per os = oral

PON

peroxide number

ppb

parts per billion

ppm

parts per million

prim.

primary

PV

peroxide value

RD

Recognised Disclosure numbers of CTFA

RH

relative humidity

RhV

Rhodane value

ROI

residue on ignition

RPHPLC

reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography

s

second(s)

s.c.

subcutaneous

SDA

specially denaturated alcohol

sec.

secondary

SEM

scanning electron microscope

sp

solidification point

SSU

Saybolt universal second

St.

Stokes, 1 St. = 10−4 m2 s−1, kinematic viscosity

SV

saponification value

t

time

TD lo

lowest published toxic dose in literature

tert.

tertiary

TGA

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

TLC

thin layer chromatography

TLV

Threshold Limit Value

TSCA

Toxic Substances Control Act

U.

units

Ung.

unguentum

USP

The United States Pharmacopoeia

vol.

volume

vol-%

volume percent = 1 ml of dissociated material in 100 ml solution

W/O

water-in-oil (emulsion)

wt

weight